Adding a Hard Drive in Linux

Adding New Drives
There are many reasons why you would need to add a new drive to your Linux box. You might have out-grown your current space limitations, or you may want to add a separate drive for a specific project or service. In any case, if you follow this guide, you should have no problems. First, you must be familiar with the naming scheme Linux uses for your drives. For purposes if this article, everything highlighted in blue is the command you must type at the terminal prompt. Anything hightlighted in red indicates changes made by a previous command or something you should pay special attention to. Anything highlighted in green is simply the standard output from a terminal or issued command. The machine used for this guide is running Red Hat Entperise Linux.

Conventional Naming
This article assumes you know the difference between primary, extended and logical partitions. In the following example, I added a SCSI hard drive with one primary partition. With that being said, I’ll continue explaining the naming scheme. Linux gives each drive a 3 letter name followed by a partition number. If you are using IDE drives, these will all be named hd**. Where hd denotes the drive and the next two variables are aassociated with IDE order (primary master, primary slave, etc) and partition number. So, your primary master drive will always be named hda. If you are using SCSI drives, everything remains the same except instead of using hd, drives are named sd**. Your SCSI primary master drive will always be named sda. All of these devices reside under the /dev portion of your Linux file system. For instance, as root, you can issue the following command to view the naming combinations possible for your system. Remember, in this example, I am using SCSI hardware. If you are using IDE, simply use hd is place of sd here.

[root@roswell root]# ls /dev/sda*
/dev/sda /dev/sdab10 /dev/sdad12 /dev/sdaf14 /dev/sdah2 /dev/sdaj4 /dev/sdal6
/dev/sda1 /dev/sdab11 /dev/sdad13 /dev/sdaf15 /dev/sdah3 /dev/sdaj5 /dev/sdal7
/dev/sda10 /dev/sdab12 /dev/sdad14 /dev/sdaf2 /dev/sdah4 /dev/sdaj6 /dev/sdal8
/dev/sda11 /dev/sdab13 /dev/sdad15 /dev/sdaf3 /dev/sdah5 /dev/sdaj7 /dev/sdal9
/dev/sda12 /dev/sdab14 /dev/sdad2 /dev/sdaf4 /dev/sdah6 /dev/sdaj8 /dev/sdam
/dev/sda13 /dev/sdab15 /dev/sdad3 /dev/sdaf5 /dev/sdah7 /dev/sdaj9 /dev/sdam1
/dev/sda14 /dev/sdab2 /dev/sdad4 /dev/sdaf6 /dev/sdah8 /dev/sdak /dev/sdam10
Some results omitted**
[root@roswell root]#

Note that I omitted a large portion of the results because they were huge! Remember that this list is not dependent on the current number of hard drives in the system, but the maximum naming possibilities for any number of drives and partitions. Do not be surprised if your results are rather lengthy as well.

Creating, Mounting, and Configuration New Partitions
Before adding an extra drive, this machine had 2 physical drives. Both of them were named accordingly (sda and sdb) before the new drive was added. The second drive containing the swap partitions was automatically renamed when the new drive was added. Notice the command and output below:

[root@roswell root]# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 8.3G 2.4G 5.5G 30% /
/dev/sda2 99M 26M 69M 27% /boot
/dev/sdc1 16G 13G 2.3G 85% /export <-- old sdb renamed to sdc by the Linux none 250M 0 250M 0% /dev/shm [root@roswell root]# This command simply lists all currently mounted drives, their names, and space usage. Notice that sdb is not presently mounted. However, we know that it exists otherwise, there would not be an sdc present. I could not add my new drive as sdc because my SCSI hotswap drive cage reserves the first two slots for 1.5" drives. So I was forced to make the new drive sdb because it is a 1.5" drive. Setting Partitions You should be fairly familiar with fdisk. The commands are somewhat different than it's DOS equivalent. See the following commands and output: [root@roswell root]# fdisk /dev/sdb Command (m for help): m Command action a toggle a bootable flag b edit bsd disklabel c toggle the dos compatibility flag d delete a partition l list known partition types m print this menu n add a new partition o create a new empty DOS partition table p print the partition table q quit without saving changes s create a new empty Sun disklabel t change a partition's system id u change display/entry units v verify the partition table w write table to disk and exit x extra functionality (experts only) Command (m for help): If there is a problem, and there is no drive associated with /dev/sdb, you will get an error message. Remember, that nothing will actually be executed until you issue a w command. It's always a good idea to read through the variables of your commands. Doing so will ensure that you aren't forgetting anything. Let's get started! Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/sdb: 50.0 GB, 50019202560 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6081 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System Command (m for help): If you issue a p command, you will see any partitions that currently exist on the drive. You can see by the output above there are no existing partitions. This drive is un-partitionedd and unformatted. To create a new partition, is the n command. Command (m for help): n Command action e extended p primary partition (1-4) p Partition number (1-4): 1 First cylinder (1-6081, default 1): 1 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6081, default 6081): 6081 Command (m for help): In the output above notice that interval I selected for the cylinders. Using the entire range allows you create one partition across the entire drive. So, in order to create a primary partition on /dev/sdb/ we issued the following commands: n (creates a new partition) p (creates a primary partition) 1 (the number 1 denotes the partition will be /dev/sdb1) We can check the partition specifications we just entered by using the p command again. Command (m for help): p Disk /dev/sdb: 50.0 GB, 50019202560 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6081 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sdb1 1 6081 48845601 83 Linux Command (m for help): Notice the new partition (highlighted in red). However, we must issue a w command to finalize it. If you messed anything up, you can use the d command and specify which partition you want to delete. Command (m for help): w The partition table has been altered! Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table. Syncing disks. [root@roswell root]# Formatting Now that the partition has been created, you need to format the drive. You can format it with almost any file system you wish. However, the most common Linux formats are ext2 and ext3. Ext3 is simply a candy coated version of ext2 that adds a logging feature. You must specify which partition to format by calling the device and partition number like this: [root@roswell root]# mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1 mke2fs 1.32 (09-Nov-2002) Filesystem label= OS type: Linux Block size=4096 (log=2) Fragment size=4096 (log=2) 6111232 inodes, 12211400 blocks 610570 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user First data block=0 373 block groups 32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group 16384 inodes per group Superblock backups stored on blocks: 32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 4096000, 7962624, 11239424 Writing inode tables: done Creating journal (8192 blocks): done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done This filesystem will be automatically checked every 38 mounts or 180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override. [root@roswell root]# What did we do there? Using the mkfs (make file system) command, we specified the type (using the -t) ext3 using the device and partition name (/dev/sdb1). You have successfull partitioned and formatted your new drive. Wait, you're not done yet. You will want to mount this partition to make it usable. You will also want this partition to mount automatically when you reboot the machine. Mounting In order to automatically mount a partition, you must edit the /etc/fstab file. The fstab file tells Linux where to mount all partitions located within the system. The output below shows the current fstab file before including the newly added drive: [root@roswell root]# vi /etc/fstab LABEL=/ / ext3 defaults 1 1 LABEL=/boot /boot ext3 defaults 1 2 none /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0 LABEL=/export /export ext3 defaults 1 2 none /proc proc defaults 0 0 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 /dev/sdb2 swap swap defaults 0 0 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom udf,iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0 /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy auto noauto,owner,kudzu 0 0 You may notice I viewed this file using vi. Vi is a simple text editor that may or may not be loaded on your Linux system. It is somewhat similar to emacs. In any case, both programs can perform the same task. We will mount the new partition as /media. Remember to create a directory named media, otherwise fstab won't be able to mount the partition. It is shown high-lighted red in the output below: LABEL=/ / ext3 defaults 1 1 LABEL=/boot /boot ext3 defaults 1 2 none /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0 LABEL=/export /export ext3 defaults 1 2 none /proc proc defaults 0 0 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 /dev/sdb1 /media ext3 defaults 1 2 /dev/sdb2 swap swap defaults 0 0 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom udf,iso9660 noauto,owner,kudzu,ro 0 0 /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy auto noauto,owner,kudzu 0 0 Next, issue a simple mount command providing the partition name: [root@roswell export]# mount /dev/sdb1 [root@roswell export]# You're all done! You will be able to access the /media folder immediately and after the machine reboots as fstab will automatically re-mount it for you. If you want to verify the partition is successfully present and mounted, use the following commands: [root@roswell media]# mount /dev/sda1 on / type ext3 (rw) none on /proc type proc (rw) none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) usbdevfs on /proc/bus/usb type usbdevfs (rw) /dev/sda2 on /boot type ext3 (rw) /dev/sdc1 on /export type ext3 (rw) none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw) /dev/sdb1 on /media type ext3 (rw) [root@roswell media]# The red line shows our new drive freshly mounted. You can check the space usage if you issue the following command. [root@roswell media]# df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda1 8.3G 2.4G 5.5G 30% / /dev/sda2 99M 26M 69M 27% /boot /dev/sdc1 16G 13G 2.3G 85% /export none 250M 0 250M 0% /dev/shm /dev/sdb1 46G 33M 44G 1% /media [root@roswell media]# HAPPY MOUNTING 😉

Era odata un print frumos, bogat si destept. Avea insa si un defect: era timid. Printul era indragostit de o printesa foarte frumoasa. Nu stia cum sa ii spuna ca o iubeste. Se gandeste si isi spune: “O invit diseara la o plimbare calare sub clar de luna, imi vopsesc inainte un sfert din cal in verde, iar cand ma va intreba de ce mi-am vopsit calul in verde ii voi spune: nu conteaza, important e ca te iubesc.”
Vine seara, ies la plimbare, printesa nu scoate o vorba toata seara. Se despart. A doua zi printul isi vopseste jumatate din cal in verde. “Cand ma va intreba de ce mi-am vopsit calul, ii voi raspunde: nu conteaza, important e ca te iubesc”, gandea printul. Seara la intalnire, se repeta tacerea de mormant. A treia seara printul isi vopseste tot calul in verde, din motivele cunoscute. Se plimba ce se plimba amandoi, la un moment dat printesa nu mai rabda tacerea si marturiseste:
– Printze, te iubesc!
Printul repede:
– Nu conteaza, important e ca mi-am vopsit calul in verde!

Un militzian opreste o data o masina pe autostrada… In masina, soferul la volan si o maimutza in dreapta

– Actele zice militzianu si..platitzi amenda pt ca pasagerul din dreapta nu poarta centura.

– Cum domne’ sa poarte centura, unde scrie ca animalele tre’ sa poarte centura???

– Aaa.. e animal, da’ ce faceti cu el?…

– Pai..domne’.. io sunt sofer, merg mult si..din cand in cand ii mai trag cate o muie.

-Hai, domn’le faci misto de mine?.

– Nu domne, sa mor io, uite, stai sa vezi; si ia romanu maimutza si hop, s-apuca de treaba, si sugea maimutza, sugea.. si la un moment dat, soferu ii spune sa se opreasca, maimutza nimic.

– Stai fa nebuna ca acuma voiam doar sa-i arat militzianului.

Maimutza nimic. O ia soferu’, o da cu capu de bord, se potoleste maimutza.

– Ei?.. vezi?? zice soferu’. Nu vretzi sa incercatzi?

– Nu domn’le, pleaca de aici.

– Hai domnu militzian, ca e moka, nu te costa nimic, potzi sa incerci sa vezi si mata cum e.

– Auzi?? hai ca incerc si io, da stii ceva??

– ??!!!

– Pe mine sa nu ma dai cu capu de bord, ca ma doare capul.

let’s talk about sex

1) Sexul e o curã bunã. De-a lungul experimentelor s-a descoperit cã femeile în timpul actului sexual secretã un hormon (estrogen) ce face pãrul mai lucios iar pielea devine mai netedã.

2) Sexul tandru reduce defectele pielii si eliminã aparitia exemelor, curãtã porii si pielea devine mai catifelatã.

3) În timpul actului sexulal se ard caloriile suplimentare acumulate în timpul cinei romantice…

4) Sexul este cel mai bun sport! Toti muschii corpului devin mai activi si tonifiati. E mai plãcut decât sã fi înotat 20 de bazine si nu avem nevoie de papuci speciali.

5) Sexul este o curã imediatã asupra depresiei. Secretã endorfine în sânge, si provoacã plãceri euforice de la care te simti bine.

6) Cu cât primesti mai mult sex, cu atât mai mult oferi. Activitatea sexualã produce o cantitate mare de feromoni, ce înnebuneste partenerul.

7) Sexul este cel mai bun calmant din lume, de zece ori este mai eficace decât valiumul.

8.) Un sãrut pe zi te tine departe pe stomatolog… sãrutul produce o asemenea cantitate de salivã ce curãtã resturile de mâncare din gurã, reduce producerea de acizi, ce provoacã aparitia tartrului si preîntâmpinã aparitia aftei.

9) Sexul reduce dureri de cap migrenice. Actul sexual reduce contractia vaselor capilare din creier.

10) Sexul repetat desfundã nasul înfundat, sexul este antihistamin natural. Poate ajuta la vindecarea astmei si a febrei.

Disable the Shutdown Reason (Event Tracker) in Windows 2003/2008

To do this, open the Group Policy Object Editor Console. Go to Start > Run…, type gpedit.msc and press OK.

Navigate to Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > System and in the right hand pane, select the “Display Shutdown Event Tracker” setting.

Double Click this setting to open the Properties page. You are now given the option to leave it in a default state of Not Configured, set it to Always Enabled, Enabled for Servers/Workstations (Windows XP Pro) or Disabled completely

Evolutia terapeuticii de-a lungul istoriei

2000 i.Hr. – Ia si mananca radacina asta .

1000 d.Hr. – Radacina asta e pagana, mai bine spune rugaciunea asta .

1850 d.Hr. – Rugaciunea e superstitie, mai bine bea potiunea asta

1940 d.Hr. – Potiunea asta e facuta din untura de sarpe, mai bine ia pastila asta.

1985 d.Hr. – Pastila asta nu e eficienta, mai bine ia antibioticul asta .

2000 d.Hr. – Antibioticul e artificial. Ia si mananca radacina asta.

Un indian emigrat de trei luni in Canada scrie unui prieten de acasa:
– Bai, tara asta e ciudata rau. Pe vecinul meu din dreapta il striga toata lumea “Little Joe”, si el are 2 metri si 250 de kile. Vecinului din stanga toata lumea ii spune “Big Jim” si el are un metru jumate si 48 de kile. Iar mie, care fac dragoste cu nevasta-mea o data pe luna, imi spun “fucking indian”…

Geloase femeile astea

Adam se intoarce acasa noaptea tarziu. Eva, care il astepta fara sa doarma, il ia in primire:

– Te vezi cu alta femeie, nu-i asa?

– Nu fi proasta, tu esti singura femeie de pe Pamant”, ii raspunse el.

Mai tarziu, in timp ce dormea, Adam se trezeste gadilat pe spate.

– Ce Dumnezeu faci acolo?”, se enerveaza el.

– Tu ce crezi? Iti numar coastele.”

Profesoara la scoala, incercand sa stimuleze mintile scolarilor, a
– Ce este rosu aprins si stralucitor?
Bula sare si raspunde:
– Un camion de pompieri!?!
– Nu, zice profesoara, dar imi place cum gandesti. Altcineva?
Maria zice:
– Un mar?
– Corect! zice profesoara.
Apoi Bula zice:
– Am si eu o intrebare… Ce este lunga, tare, rotunjita, cu par la un
si o bagi si scoti din gura????
– Bula !!!…tipa profa, noi nu vorbim asa aici!!!
La care Bula zice:
– Periuta de dinti!!! Dar imi place cum ganditi!